ZMP, or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1–D-ribofuranoside, is a peptide that studies suggest may function similarly to AMP. It’s a naturally occurring compound that has been hypothesized to increase the metabolic regulation protein AMP-dependent kinase’s activity. Researchers in the lab may additionally evaluate the AMPK-stimulating AICAR by synthesizing it. Preclinical studies and trials in mice now examine AICAR’s potential in the context of various metabolic illnesses.
AICAR Peptide: What is it?
Research suggests that AICAR is a small peptide that may significantly function in energy balance and metabolic pathways. It has also been purported to improve insulin’s ability to work inside muscle cells and control insulin receptors.
Studies have suggested that the peptide hormone AICAR may have cancer-mitigating and heart-protective impacts. It may potentially prevent blood from clotting in its earliest stages. This is why researchers are eager to learn more about this protein.
Findings imply that the peptide AICAR has been suggested to increase the metabolic capabilities of tissues, suggesting that it may be interest and prevelant in research studies within the context of diabetes.
AICAR Peptide: Mechanism of Action
Experimental studies have suggested that AICAR may increase available energy storage. It has been hypothesized to promote fat cell consumption for energy and stimulate mitochondrial production, the cellular power plants. In a nutshell, AICAR peptides may save cells from crashing due to a lack of fuel.
In experiments on mice given AICAR, findings purported that the research models could physically move upwards of by 44% compared to controls. Researchers speculate that multiple metabolic processes in mice may include AICAR. Scientists suggest it may also be useful in the context of diabetes, cancer, and heart disease in animals.
AICAR Peptide and Muscle
AICAR has been speculated to have the potential to promote muscle growth. Research suggests it may be essential for promoting muscle development and preserving existing muscular mass. Additionally, studies have suggested that it may help inhibit the decline in muscle mass that often occurs with advancing age.
McMaster University researchers hypothesized that AMPK may play a significant role in preventing muscle loss that occurs with age. Muscle weakening in mice missing this appeared was far worse than originally predicted.
These results suggest that AICAR peptide may represent a promising research candidate within the context of disorders that cause muscle wasting.
AICAR Peptide and Inflammation
Research suggests that asthma, colitis, hepatitis, and atherosclerosis are inflammatory disorders that may be aided by AICAR’s protective potential. For instance, in animal studies, ACIAR has been purported to lessen colitis-related inflammation. It has also been theorized that the impact of autoimmune illnesses and other inflammatory conditions may be mitigated.
AICAR Peptide and Fertility
AICAR, like other AMPK activators, has been hypothesized to increase sperm motility, metabolism, and fertilization success in studies with cats, chickens, and goats.
Findings implied that AICAR seemed well tolerated by mice and may have high bioavailability. The purchase of AICAR is strictly prohibited for human consumption. Only qualified medical professionals or academic researchers should buy AICAR peptides. Click here for more information.
AICAR Peptide and Insulin Sensitivity
In rodent studies, adipose tissue (the connective tissue that stores energy as fat) is hypothesized to reduce inflammation by high and low AICAR concentrations.
Insulin resistance and inflammation of fat cells go hand in hand. Inflammation reduction results in better glucose control. Investigations purport that AICAR may modulate adipose tissue inflammation via several routes, including SIRT1 and macrophages.
Results from a second trial in obese monkeys suggested decreased fat cell presence and increased insulin resistance.
Further AICAR research implies that in metabolic diseases, both normal and diabetic mice may have attenuated inflammatory responses. Studies also suggested that AICAR may improve insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, energy balance, and inflammatory symptoms.
AICAR Peptide and the Heart
Inflammation is a frequent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Animal studies have suggested that AICAR’s possible anti-inflammatory actions may aid in slowing the development of vascular disorders.
To investigate, scientists gave AICAR to rabbits with atherosclerosis to see what would happen. The findings implied that AICAR may have suppressed vascular smooth muscle growth, lowering short-term and long-term problems after stent insertion.
The research also suggests that activating AICAR may inhibit atherosclerosis-inducing immune responses. The accumulation of bad cholesterol (LDL) triggers the multiplication of macrophages, which might cause a heart attack. Studies have suggested that AICAR may lessen the spread of cardiovascular disease and cut down on the frequency of heart attacks.
AICAR Peptide and Cancer Cells
Investigations purport that the peptide hormone AICAR may have some role in carcinogenesis. Research suggests that, depending on the specifics, it may inhibit or promote tumor development.
By slowing their metabolism, cancer cells are killed when AMPK is activated over an extended period. Researchers are now exploring using AICAR and other chemotherapeutic substances to quantify any potential boost in efficacy. They speculate that AICAR might:
- Modify negative impacts
- Facilitate recovery from cancer in chemo-resistant mice
- Allow for reduced concentrations in traditional mitigating compounds
There is data from research on thyroid cancer cells suggesting that AICAR may induce p21 accumulation, which can lead to programmed cell death. Researchers hypothesize that AICAR may reduce the growth and survival of cancer cells.
[i] Yang, Hong, Lingling Zhao, Douglas Stevenson, Mark Bartlett, and Bin Lou. “Anti-Inflammatory Effect of AMPK Activators from Natural Products in RAW 264.7 Cell Model (P06-095-19).” Current Developments in Nutrition 3, no. Supplement_1 (June 1, 2019). doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz031.p06-095-19.
[ii] Criscione, L. “Comment on ‘A Peptidomimetic Targeting White Fat Causes Weight Loss and Improved Insulin Resistance in Obese Monkeys.’” Science Translational Medicine 4, no. 131 (April 25, 2012): 131le2–131le2. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003760.
[iii] Spurr, Ian B., Charles N. Birts, Francesco Cuda, Stephen J. Benkovic, Jeremy P. Blaydes, and Ali Tavassoli. “Targeting Tumour Proliferation with a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of AICAR Transformylase Homodimerization.” ChemBioChem 13, no. 11 (July 4, 2012): 1628–1634. doi:10.1002/cbic.201200279.