Sun. Mar 3rd, 2024
Pal-GHK Peptide

The unique synthetic chemical Palmitoyl-GHK, also known as Palmitoyl-tripeptide-1, combines a tripeptide sequence with a palmitic acid component. The combination of palmitic acid and the peptide segment glycine-histidine-lysine (GHK), which occurs naturally in several biological systems, is thought to increase permeability in the skin’s stratum corneum.

In 1973, Pickart et al. discovered the GHK sequence in the plasma of various species; since then, it has been suggested to play a critical role in activating fibroblasts. Pal-GHK’s dual properties suggest it may have promising applications in skin cell research, highlighting its potential in fortifying the extracellular matrix. Ongoing studies aim to learn more about its mechanism of action and its implications on long-term skin cell function.

Palmitoyl-GHK is thought to increase collagen formation, a key element of the skin’s extracellular matrix. As a collagen fragment produced during the hydrolysis process typical of wound healing and inflammatory reactions, the Gly-His-Lys sequence is thought to be responsible for this quality.

This leads researchers to assume that the tripeptide may be a natural signaling molecule for fibroblasts, the main cellular agent in synthesizing collagen and other essential extracellular matrix components. Since collagen is considered to play a crucial function in maintaining the skin’s structural integrity and providing support, Pal-GHK peptide may have the potential to improve stucture and texture.

Furthermore, Palmitoyl-GHK exposure led to hypotheses on its possible antioxidant characteristics, enabling protection against the damaging effects of free radicals. The capacity of these unstable molecules to cause harm to cellular structures is theorized, and this damage is thought to play a role in the outward manifestations of the physiological deterioration that comes with advancing age. Studies suggest that the Pal-GHK peptide may slow down the aging of skin cells and fight inflammation by neutralizing free radicals.

Pal-GHK Peptide Research Studies

Pal-GHK peptide’s potential varied uses in skin biology research have attracted much interest in diverse research projects.

The palmitoyl moiety and the tripeptide sequence Gly-His-Lys in this synthetic peptide have suggested promise in studies looking at its potential to stimulate collagen formation and improve skin suppleness and smoothness. As a possible factor in wound healing and extracellular matrix reinforcement, it has been investigated in various formulations.

Pal-GHK Peptide Synthesis and Collagen

The probable mechanism of action of Gly-His-Lys in Pal-GHK was first revealed by research published in FEBS Letters in 1988 by Maquart et al.

Studies suggest that when collagen is hydrolyzed, this tripeptide sequence may be produced as a waste product. When tissues are damaged, these fragments may function as signaling molecules to stimulate fibroblasts to begin producing new collagen. Pal-GHK, with its comparable Gly-His-Lys sequence, may potentially promote the formation of collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans, essential elements of the skin’s extracellular matrix.

Researchers hypothesized that the GHK triplet in the alpha 2(I) chain of type I collagen may be released by proteases at wound sites, resulting in healing properties.

Experimental findings from a 23-subject, placebo-controlled trial further support Pal-GHK’s potential to increase collagen production. The researchers hypothesized that the peptide might affect skin regeneration, and they suggested a small but statistically significant increase in skin thickness (around 4% compared to the placebo).

Pal-GHK Peptide and Oxidation

Intriguing results from a 2018 lab study by Sakuma et al. purported that the Pal-GHK amino-acid sequence may contain antioxidative potential. 

This promise looked to outstrip the effectiveness of other classified antioxidative peptides, such as carnosine and reduced glutathione, routinely tested in relevant studies. Based on investigations using an ESR spin-trapping approach, the authors suggested that Pal-GHK might dampen signals associated with hydroxyl (OH) and peroxyl (ROO) radicals produced in different chemical reaction systems.

Photodamage and the damage it causes to lipids, DNA, and proteins are thought to be mediated in large part by active radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). Researchers have speculated that the amino acid sequence inside Pal-GHK may have anti-RCS properties against acrolein, malondialdehyde, and 4-hydroxynoneal, all of which are radicals. 

Ferritin is an enzyme that catalyzes lipid peroxidation, and Pal-GHK has recently been proposed as a possible regulator of this iron release. One research purported a significant 87% decrease in iron release from injured tissue after exposure to Pal-GHK, suggesting moderating oxidation inside the afflicted tissues.

More encouragingly, Pal-GHK has also been hypothesized to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes while lowering the creation of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines. In an animal study, Pal-GHK seemed to display some potential to block the activation of the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, both intimately related to inflammation. Mice with lung injury suggested decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells, as well as lower production of TNF-1 and IL-6.

It has also been theorized that Pal-GHK may help reduce the oxidative stress brought on by environmental factors and leading to oxidative damage. Studies have suggested that Pal-GHK’s amino acid sequence may reduce reactive oxygen species in cell cultures while also increasing the production of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). This implies that Pal-GHK might help reduce oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells. By controlling the production of antioxidant proteins in response to injury and inflammation, Nrf2 acts as a protective barrier against oxidative damage. 

Pal-GHK Peptide and Wrinkle Development

A clinical experiment was conducted to determine whether Pal-GHK may effectively reduce wrinkle depth. The trial, including a cream formulation featuring Pal-GHK, comprised 15 research models described by the researchers. Significant wrinkle length, depth, and roughness improvements were speculated over the trial period, suggesting that the peptide may effectively reduce these outward manifestations of aging.

A further clinical study not linked to Pal-GHK looked at the synergistic potential of Pal-GQPR, a palmitoylated tetrapeptide with the sequence Pal-Gly-Gln-Pro-Arg generated from IgG. The depth, volume, density, roughness, and surface area occupied by deep wrinkles all suggested substantial improvements in the research, which was a blind, randomized experimental study including 28 research models. This in-depth study highlights the synergistic influence of the combined peptides in potentially improving key parameters related to cell aging and skin texture.

Scientists interested in further research may buy peptides from the highest quality online peptide source, Biotech Peptides. These peptides are available strictly for research use only, and prohibited for human or animal consumption.

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[i] Pickart, L., & Thaler, M. M. (1973). Tripeptide in human serum which prolongs survival of normal liver cells and stimulates growth in neoplastic liver. Nature: New biology, 243(124), 85–87.

[ii] Lintner, K., & Peschard, O. (2000). Biologically active peptides: from a laboratory bench curiosity to a functional skin care product. International journal of cosmetic science, 22(3), 207–218.

[iii] Sakuma, S., Ishimura, M., Yuba, Y., Itoh, Y., & Fujimoto, Y. (2018). The peptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine is an endogenous antioxidant in living organisms, possibly by diminishing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology, 10(3), 132–138.

[iv] Cebrián, J., Messeguer, A., Facino, R. M., & García Antón, J. M. (2005). New anti-RNS and -RCS products for cosmetic treatment. International journal of cosmetic science, 27(5), 271–278.

[v] Park, J. R., Lee, H., Kim, S. I., & Yang, S. R. (2016). The tri-peptide GHK-Cu complex ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Oncotarget, 7(36), 58405–58417.


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