Biology lab experiments have seen a lot of change since the early 1900s and with the invention of the microscope, scientists were able to visualize very minute intracellular structures. Continuing that, in the mid-19th century Gregor Mendel began experimenting with his creative skills and found genetics which was another big thing in the field of scientific research.
There are many other break moments in time when simple human beings were able to crack the code and breach the boundary of nature a little in order to benefit themselves and enhance their lives. So, talking about the topic, the term ‘porb’ in biology refers to the main outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae which is encrypted by the porB gene and this article will discuss this topic only.
What is Porb?
So talking about porb, it is mainly known as the outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and it comes from a gene which is named the ‘porb gene’. Continuing that, this protein is like a team player forming a homotrimeric β-barrel protein on the outer membrane of gonococci, which is a type of bacteria. Continuing that, many scientists have dug into this porB gene and discovered many different versions of it which they have sorted into two groups which is like giving them name tags at a big genetic party.\
PorB is not just the outer protein but also a master manipulator when it comes to the host’s immune response. It is like a sneaky player who recruits negative regulators to calm down the host’s innate immune response.
One more thing to add to this, the porB protein has something in common with a protein found in mitochondria which is known as voltage-dependent anion channel.
When was the PorB Protein Discovered?
Well, after thorough research and exploring we conclude that there is no specific date as to when the porB protein was discovered. However, Scientists have been studying it for many years and looking into its main functions and uses.
So, there is no fixed date mentioned in the history of its exploration but what is clear is that scientists have known about it for a long time and constant research is going on regarding its functions, uses, and how it can be altered and experimented with so as to attain something beneficial from it.
What is the Main function of Porb?
Well, the porB protein works multiple tasks that are necessary for the bacterium’s survival, or in other words, porB acts as a gatekeeper and conducts the exchange of ions and nutrients that ensure the bacteria gets what it requires. Adding to add, the porB protein is also hideous because it can slip into the host cell’s mitochondria to disturb their energy source and also play with the immune system.
In simple words, porB protein mainly focuses on helping the bacteria to survive and does all the necessary things that can help with that.
What will Happen to Bacterial Viability When Porb is Mutated?
- Decrease in outer membrane vesicle secretion
Well, a mutation in the porB protein can lead to a reduction in the secretion of OMV which may hinder the bacterium’s ability to exchange ions and nutrients with the environment.
- Changed outer membrane placing
When porB is mutated, the localization of it affected can disturb its function and change its existential properties as a nutrient transport channel.
- Impaired ion exchange
Well, these two things are very important for bacterial viability and any mutation in the porB protein can disturb that and change the game.
- Phagosome maturation is affected
Last but not least, the mutated porB can affect bacteria’s ability to modulate phagosome maturation which could disturb its possibility to survive within the host cells.
Also Read: How to Easily Boost Your Protein Intake
Can the Mutation affect the Protein’s Structure?
A study showed that a single mutation at the periplasmic side of loop L3 does not affect much in the secondary protein structure. However, the mutation can lead to the building of an alpha helix that diminishes the pore very much hence affecting the pore’s properties such as ion flux and ampicillin binding. Another study shows that efforts to introduce random mutations across the entire porB gene resulted in a low viable mutant outcome, hence pointing to the essential nature of the protein.
So, in clear and straightforward words, mutations in the porB gene can lead to physical changes in the porB protein hence hindering its main function as a pore and its communication with antibiotics and essential nutrients.
What is the Impact on the Structure of the Porb Protein?
As said in the earlier paragraph, there is a big change in the porB gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and it can mess with how the PorB protein looks. Adding to that, it causes an alpha-helix to form hence making the protein’s pore really narrow which ultimately affects things like how ions flow and how amplicillin sticks to it. Adding to that, the mutation also messes with how often the pore gets blocked by changing the voltage dependence, which in turn can mess up how antibiotics sit on the protein.
But another point to this is that not every mutation can lead to that much disturbance because some of them can happen without affecting even a single thing, and also do not mess with the normal job of the porB protein, which is helping the bacteria to survive and grow.
Final Words on PorB Protein
So, in conclusion, we can say that even though there is no detailed history of when was the protein discovered, scientists have brought all its functions and its activities to the world and everyone knows what it does and how it does those activities.
We hope that all your questions are answered in this article and there is nothing more that you need to know about the porB protein.